Denzin (1978) and Patton (1999) identified four types of triangulation: (a) method triangulation, (b) investigator triangulation, (c) theory triangulation, and (d) data source triangulation. Validity is how researchers talk about the extent that results represent reality. Research methods, quantitative or qualitative, are methods of studying real phenomenon – validity refers to how much of that phenomenon they measure vs. how much “noise,” or …

External validity is usually split into two distinct types, population validity and ecological validity and they are both essential elements in judging the strength of an experimental design. Qualitative Data Types

External validity is about generalization: To what extent can an effect in research, be generalized to populations, settings, treatment variables, and measurement variables?.

Validity and reliability increase transparency and decrease opportunities to insert researcher bias in qualitative research (Singh, 2014). Triangulation also has been viewed as a qualitative research strategy to test validity through the convergence of information from different sources.

Rather than determining ‘counts or measures’ as in quantitative research, qualitative research involves a description of things, related characteristics and meanings, and basic observations and interpretations.

The researcher must ensure reliability and validity of the study based on the ability to maintain neutrality, and trustworthiness (Golafshani, 2003).

The six types of qualitative research are the phenomenological model, the ethnographic model, grounded theory, case study, historical model and the narrative model. The term qualitative research is used as an umbrella term to refer to several research strategies.

Five common types of qualitative research are grounded theory, ethnographic, narrative research, case studies, and phenomenology. From traditional validity testing in quantitative research study, scholars have initiated determination of validity in qualitative studies as well (Golafshani 2003). Qualitative research is a range of kinds of research, the common feature of which is reliance on unstructured data and on forms of data analysis that are non-numerical. External Validity.

dichotomous positioning of qualitative research with respect to its quantitative coun - terpart. It allows for the inclusion of many different kinds of data collection and analysis techniques, as well as the diversity of theoretical and epistemological frame-works that are associated with qualitative research. Qualitative research is an exploratory scientific method of observation to gather non-numerical data. Six types of qualitative research help businesses and other organizations develop better models for sales and client retention.