The concept of hegemonic masculinity has influenced gender studies across many academic fields but has also attracted serious criticism. 37 Authors have studied men and masculinity since the 1950s; 38 however, it is Connell's concept of hegemonic masculinity that has …

It was this social process of hegemonic masculinity that necessitated the emotional stoicism, willingness to accept and inflict violence on other men, and participation in masculinized endeavours like sport, the military and other fraternal organizations. This analysis is discussed in relation to changes associated with a move from a private to a public … The authors trace the origin of the concept in a convergence of ideas in the early 1980s and map the ways it was applied when research on men and masculinities expanded. University of California Press. Within this plurality of masculinities, one pattern, hegemonic masculinity, is argued to be socially privileged, culturally dominant, and legitimizes a hierarchy of gender relations among men and other masculinities, as well as between men and women (Connell & Messerschmidt, 2005). Through the review of key empirical studies which have examined identity work undertaken by young women and young men as they negotiate idealized gender norms, this article examines how hegemonic relations are reproduced alongside the production of plural femininities and masculinities.

Toxicity is centrally related to three foundational concepts introduced by the influential masculinities scholar Raewyn Connell: hegemonic masculinity, itself formulated in relation to two other expressions of the masculine, as subordinate and marginalized. Masculinities. This article examines the narratives of men who purchase sex from street-level providers in a mid-sized city in Western Canada. Connell later 2005 Connell, R. W., & Connell, R. (2005). We explore what men’s stories tell us about how masculinity is constructed in relation to street sex work.