Accepted: 10 January 2018.

Child labor usually means children working very long hours in very bad conditions. All through history, children have often been forced to work hard. In India the figure of child labor has crossed above 44 million, in Pakistan it is from 8 to 10 million, in Bangladesh 8-12 million, in Brazil 7 million, whereas it is 12 million in Nigeria. This is called “child labor”. Child labour law does not allow children under the age of 14 to be employed, but anyone under 18 is legally considered a child. Cite. This causes adverse impact on mental, physical, moral, and social life of children. Article history. The complexity of the phenomenon implies that a large set of policy instruments can be used to address child labor or can affect child labor. Despite Microsoft's global reputation as both a top employer and a philanthropic pioneer, allegations surfaced in October 2018 that child labour was being used to extract cobalt for the company in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC); investigators for Amnesty International claim that children as young as 7 are mining the product in toxic and hostile conditions for 12 hours a day. Article contents; Figures & tables; Video; Audio; Supplementary Data; Cite.

Revision received: 02 January 2018. Industry and government have made steps to tackle child labor in Mexico’s tobacco fields, but Nina Lakhani finds low incomes for working families slow progress. 02 February 2018. 12 To understate the number of children employed would be to invite legislation, for only if children were a large, necessary part of the work force would legislators hesitate to place restrictions on their labor that would harm industry. Published: 02 February 2018 . Children may start working as young as six or seven. Received: 15 September 2017. Household decisions about child labor are influenced by income, uncertainty, and relative returns to work and education. Photography by César Rodríguez Child Labor is one of the ever growing social problems faced by Pakistan since time immemorial. Child labor is very different than when your parents ask you to help out around the house.

Government helpless. PDF; Split View Views. The appetite for electric cars is driving a boom in small-scale cobalt production in the Democratic Republic of Congo, where some mines have been found to be dangerous and employ child labor.