A/62/62 and Add.1. ASR Articles on State Responsibility for Internationally Wrongful Acts (2001) AT Attribution.

AVR Archiv des Völkerrechts. CM Countermeasures.

BYIL British Yearbook of International Law.

Articles on that topie on first reading in 2009 (see Chapters 22, 66).
Disruptions caused by the global spread of COVID-19 are likely to generate claims for different types of responsibility, whether domestic or international. 1 The Articles on State Responsibility for Internationally Wrongful Acts (a) The 'Ago revolution' Ago distanced himselffrom the approach taken by Garda Amador in the debates of 19634 that preceded his appointment as Special Rapporteur, as well as in his note of 19675 The ILC’s Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts965 10 See the Report of the Chairman of the Drafting Committee (P. Tomka), in A/CN.4/SR.2681, 29 May 2001, A/CN.4/SR.2682, 30 May 2001, A/CN.4/SR.2683, 31 May 2001, A/CN.4/SR.2701, 3 August 2001. This contribution focuses on one type of responsibility under international law, that of State responsibility for internationally wrongful acts. 2 See ‘Responsibility of States for internationally wrongful acts; Compilation of decisions of international courts, tribunals and other bodies; Report of the Secretary-General’, UN doc. No.
10, at 43, UN Doc. CPWs Circumstances Precluding Wrongfulness The debate did not stop after the International Law Commission (ILC) finalized its Articles on the Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts (ARSIWA) 1 and was picked up by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in the merits phase of the Application of the Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide between Bosnia and Serbia in 2007. 2013] Sovereignty & Cyber Attacks 3 States for Internationally Wrongful Acts (‘Draft Articles’),5 which tie state responsibility to showing that a private party is ‘acting on the instructions of, or under the direction or control of’ a state.6 7Case law also reflects this ‘relatively stringent’ approach.8 As the Manual notes,9 the International Court of Justice

Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts, in Report of the International Law Commission on the Work ofIts Fifty-third Session, UN GAOR, 56th Sess., Supp.